Set up and deploy on-premises environments (Platform update 12) Complete Guide

While the documentation from MS to Dynamics 365 For Finance and Operations set up and deploy on-premises environments is fairly good, there are a few areas in which I think some additional explanation and context for planning ahead would be nice. This guide is meant to augment the MS documentation but not replace it. Each page will have a link back to the specific section we'll be augmenting with some additional commentary. This page will serve as the nexus for all the pages / parts as they get published.